The origins of the modern Thermos flask can be traced back to the laboratory of Sir James Dewar, a nineteenth century Scottish scientist, where he tried out low-temperature materials. Producing liquid oxygen at temperatures below -183 C, the issue of storage proved particularly challenging and in 1892 Dewar developed his very own solution, the Túi Giữ Nhiệt.
His invention consisted of two glass-walled chambers separated by a vacuum, which prevented air currents from moving heat in or out and a silver coating created a reflective layer to lessen additional transfer of warmth by radiation. Dewar built on his sub-zero expertise, becoming the initial person to generate liquid and solid hydrogen then to co-invent cordite, a smokeless gunpowder. Eventually knighted in 1904 in recognition of his significant contributions to science, the entire potential of his vacuum flask had yet to become realised.
Meanwhile, Rheinhold Burger, one of Dewar’s former pupils, realised that the vacuum flask may have commercial applications. He improved on the fragile design by enclosing the glass chamber in a robust metal casing, secured with protective rubber mountings and then in 1904 he sold the thought to some German company of glassblowers. This kind of novel invention deserved a remarkable name and a competition was soon launched to find one. The eventual winner, a resident of Munich, could not have guessed that his choice would still be a household name today. Derived from the Greek word for heat, “therme”, the Thermos flask had arrived.
Initially, production proved slow and expensive as each glass vessel was hand-blown by skilled craftsmen and just only a few flasks may be completed in a day. Despite this Thermos expanded, becoming a worldwide concern and in 1911 a London-based subsidiary made an important breakthrough inside the mechanisation of flask production. Output increased, prices fell and the Vali Size 20 was a must-have item using its miraculous claim to keep fluids hot for round the clock or cold for three days.
An intensive marketing strategy declared it “the bottle from the 20th Century created for updated people” and “an absolute necessity for each modern household from Pole to Pole.” Endorsed by Earnest Shackleton on his visit to the Antarctic and the Wright Brothers in their aeroplane, the Thermos was adopted many famous expeditions, increasing its status much more.
Because the flask increased in popularity, new releases became available including the classic pint-sized “Blue Bottle” as well as the “Jumbo Jug,” a gallon-sized jar for storing food. The development of stronger Pyrex jars in 1928 triggered the development of huge 28 gallon containers. These were found in shops as ice cream cabinets or even to store frozen fish although commercial refrigeration took over in the 1930s.
World War 2 brought big changes for your Thermos Company in Britain. Nearly all its resources were directed towards military demands because the vacuum flask became standard wartime issue. It provides often been claimed that whenever a thousand bomber planes went out on a raid, over 10,000 vacuum flasks went together. A former pilot recalls how provisions were scarce but, “my kit always was made up of Thermos flasks of coffee and tea and packs of sandwiches.”
Even today, it seems to be valued by servicemen, worldwide. A soldier, recently on duty in Afghanistan, describes the way the Russians customise their Jeeps. “Commanders make sure they are plush -fitting curtains, quilted seat covers, fans and drinks cabinets (always containing a Thermos flask of black tea).” Following the Second World War production refocused on civilian requirements and ynohag population seemed keen to renew its acquaintance with the pint-sized miracle.
Already established as a domestic favourite for the storage of food and drink, the Bịt Mắt Ngủ had wider implications for science, medicine and technology along with its listing of applications continued to grow through the second half of the century. Its insulating properties proved critical in the area of medicine since it provided an ideal medium for that transport of insulin, human tissue samples and eventually donor organs. Vacuum flask technology has been placed on aircraft instrumentation, weather detection equipment and is used in the nuclear power industry and international Space programmes.
In a rapidly developing world, this innovative product has worked hard to take care of current trends and establish itself being a 20th Century icon. As cheap flights made travel more accessible and new technology led to extreme sports, the development of the first stainless steel vacuum bottle in 1966 ensured that this flask could satisfy the demands of the new generation of adventurers. With environmental issues on the agenda today, the obvious energy saving benefits may retain the factor to its survival for another century.